Computer Networking #7 -Questions and Answers

What is NIC Card ?

NIC Card-
NIC Card-

A Network Interface Card (NIC) is a computer hardware component that allows a computer to connect to a network. NICs may be used for both wired and wireless connections.

A NIC is also known as a network interface controller (NIC), network interface controller card, expansion card, computer circuit board, network card, LAN card, network adapter or network adapter card (NAC).

Most new computers have either Ethernet capabilities integrated into the motherboard chipset, or use an inexpensive dedicated Ethernet chip connected through the PCI or PCI Express bus. A separate NIC is generally no longer needed. If the card or controller is not integrated into the motherboard, it may be an integrated component in a router, printer interface or USB device.

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Typically, there is an LED next to the connector informing the user if the network is active or whether or not data is being transferred on it. Depending on the card or motherboard, transfer rates may be 10, 100, or 1000 Megabits per second.

What are use of NIC Card ?

It allow you to connect to internet and ask hard-to-classify questions like this one on Quora.

Seriously. Back in 90’s Ethernet is not stardard equipment of computers. Token Ring and 10base-5 are still used in enterprise and labs. And people will have to install extra network interface card to their workstations, so that they can connect to network.

Today Ethernet and Wifi are everywhere and almost all desktop computers today have built-in Ethernet interface on the motherboard. Network interface card is now a niche market for dedicated purpose. For example, in large scale data center fiber channels are widely used as data transmission media of Storage Area Network. Computers (usually rack-mount servers) that need to connect to the SAN must install a fiber channel interface card

Important Questions of Computer Networking – CCNA are Listed Bellow (Part-7)

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1- What is Bandwidth?

Answer: Every line has an upper limit and a lower limit on the frequency of signals it can carry. This limited range is called the bandwidth.

2- What are the types of Transmission media?

Answer: Signals are usually transmitted over some transmission media that are broadly classified in to two categories.

Guided Media:

These are those that provide a conduit from one device to another that include twisted-pair, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable. A signal traveling along any of these media is directed and is contained by the physical limits of the medium. Twisted-pair and coaxial cable use metallic that accept and transport signals in the form of electrical current. Optical fiber is a glass or plastic cable that accepts and transports signals in the form of light.

Unguided Media:

This is the wireless media that transport electromagnetic waves without using a physical conductor. Signals are broadcast either through air. This is done through radio communication, satellite communication and cellular telephony.

3- What is Project 802?

Answer: It is a project started by IEEE to set standards to enable intercommunication between equipment from a variety of manufacturers. It is a way for specifying functions of the physical layer, the data link layer and to some extent the network layer to allow for interconnectivity of major LAN


It consists of the following:

=> 802.1 is an internetworking standard for compatibility of different LANs and MANs across protocols.

=> 802.2 Logical link control (LLC) is the upper sublayer of the data link layer which is non-architecture-specific, that is remains the same for all IEEE-defined LANs.
=> Media access control (MAC) is the lower sublayer of the data link layer that contains some distinct modules each carrying proprietary information specific to the LAN product being used. The modules are Ethernet LAN (802.3), Token ring LAN (802.4), Token bus LAN (802.5).
=> 802.6 is distributed queue dual bus (DQDB) designed to be used in MANs.

4- What is Protocol Data Unit?

Answer: The data unit in the LLC level is called the protocol data unit (PDU). The PDU contains of four fields a destination service access point (DSAP), a source service access point (SSAP), a control field and an information field. DSAP, SSAP are addresses used by the LLC to identify the protocol stacks on the receiving and sending machines that are generating and using the data. The control field specifies whether the PDU frame is a information frame (I – frame) or a supervisory frame (S – frame) or a unnumbered frame (U – frame).

5- What are the different type of networking / inter networking devices?

* Repeater: *

Also called a regenerator, it is an electronic device that operates only at physical layer. It receives the signal in the network before it becomes weak, regenerates the original bit pattern and puts the refreshed copy back in to the link.

* Bridges: *

These operate both in the physical and data link layers of LANs of same type. They divide a larger network in to smaller segments. They contain logic that allow them to keep the traffic for each segment separate and thus are repeaters that relay a frame only the side of the segment containing the intended recipient and control congestion.

* Routers: *

They relay packets among multiple interconnected networks (i.e. LANs of different type). They operate in the physical, data link and network layers. They contain software that enable them to determine which of the several possible paths is the best for a particular transmission.

* Gateways: *

They relay packets among networks that have different protocols (e.g. between a LAN and a WAN). They accept a packet formatted for one protocol and convert it to a packet formatted for another protocol before forwarding it. They operate in all seven layers of the OSI model.

6- What is difference between baseband and broadband transmission?

Answer: In a baseband transmission, the entire bandwidth of the cable is consumed by a single signal. In broadband transmission, signals are sent on multiple frequencies, allowing multiple signals to be sent simultaneously.

7- What are Digrams and Trigrams?

Answer: The most common two letter combinations are called as digrams. e.g. th, in, er, re and an. The most common three letter combinations are called as trigrams. e.g. the, ing, and, and ion.

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8- What is autonomous system?

Answer: It is a collection of routers under the control of a single administrative authority and that uses a common Interior Gateway Protocol.

9- What is source route?

Answer: It is a sequence of IP addresses identifying the route a datagram must follow. A source route may optionally be included in an IP datagram header.

10- How Gateway is different from Routers?

Answer: A gateway operates at the upper levels of the OSI model and translates information between two completely different network architectures or data formats

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