(EMINENT SCIENTISTS AND SCHOLARS OF MODERN INDIA)‘sArticle is in three part.)
EMINENT SCIENTISTS AND SCHOLARS OF MODERN INDIA-Part 1
Srinivasa Ramanujan Aiyangar was born on 22 December 1887 in a poor Brahman family. He is a famous Indian mathematician whose efforts on continued fractions and series of hypergeometry are well known. At the age of 13, he was able to solve Loney’s Trigonometry exercises without any help. When he was 14, he could successfully obtain the theorems of cosine and sine given by L Euler. He completed the Synopsis given by George Shoobridge Carr on Elementary Results in Pure and Applied Mathematics. It helped Ramanujam to discover new dimensions through which he introduced about 6,165 theorems for himself. With no proper and good books available to him, he had to figure out on his own the solutions for all the questions. It was during this quest that he discovered many tremendous methods and new algebraic series.
Ramanujam received a scholarship at Government College, Kumbakonam in 1904. During 1911, some of his results were published. In 1913, he sent his work to G. H. Hardy, professor at Cambridge University. Although his work was not much appreciated, but the University of Madras offered scholarship to him. He went to Cambridge in 1914. Hardy had said that Ramanujan could have become an outstanding mathematician if his skills were recognised earlier. It was said about his talents of solving continued fractions and hypergeometric series that, ‘he was unquestionably one of the great masters.’It was due to his sharp memory, calculative mind, patience and insight that he was a great formalist of his days. He was elected as the fellow in 1918 at the Trinity College at Cambridge and the Royal Society. Ramanujan departed from this world on 26 April 1920.
Chandrasekhara V. Raman, who was popularly known as C.V. Raman, became the first Asian to win the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1930. He secured first rank in the Indian Audit and Accounts (IAAS) Examination. At the age of 19, he was appointed as Assistant Accountant General in the Finance Department, Calcutta.
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EMINENT SCIENTISTS AND SCHOLARS OF INDIA- Part 3 , Development of Science and Technology in Modern India ,
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After sacrificing this post, he joined as a professor of Physics in the Science College of Calcutta University. In 1921, he read a paper on the theory of stringed instruments earlier than the Royal Society of London. He was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society.
During his trip to England, the blue colour of the sea highly attracted him. This made him curious to know why it remained blue even when big waves rolled up. Later he got a hint that it was due to the breaking up of sun’s light by water molecules. He conducted many experiments and also prepared a research paper on molecular scattering of light and sent it to the Royal Society of London. The whole world was amazed with the brilliance of his mind. This phenomenon became famous as ‘Raman Effect’and spectral lines in the scattered light as ‘Raman Lines’.
There was a debate among scientists that whether light was like waves or like particles. This debate ended with the ‘Raman Effect’proving that light is made up of particles known as photons.
Jagdish Chandra Bose was born on 30 November 1858. He was appointed as an Assistant Professor of Physics at the Presidency College, but left his job. For studying the properties of electric waves, he made an apparatus. He was knighted in 1917 for his paper on The Electromagnetic Radiation and Polarisation of Electric Ray. J.C. Bose, in 1920, became the first Indian scientist to receive the Fellowship of the Royal Society of London.
Dr. Bose invented Cresco graph which could record even the millionth part of a millimeter of plant growth and its movement. He proved through graphs about the circulatory system of plants. He also showed through Creso graph that the upward movement of sap in plants is the activity of living cells.
Instruments made by Dr. Bose showed how even steel and metals which are used in scissors and machinery gets tired and regain their efficiency after a period of rest. He also invented a wireless coherer (radio signal detector) and an instrument for indicating the refraction of electric waves.
Dr. H.J. Bhabha was born on 30 October 1909 in a famous Parsi family. Dr. Bhabha’s efforts led India into the atomic age. He is also known as the father of Indian Nuclear Science. He completed mechanical engineering from Cambridge, and received his doctorate in 1935. On the request of Dr. C.V. Raman, he joined the Indian Institute of Sciences at Bangalore as a Reader and soon became a Professor of Physics. Later he got the idea of establishing a research institute for new areas of Physics. He suggested Sir DorabJi Tata to build an institution which would lay the foundation of India as a world nuclear power, which led to the establishment of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR).
The first atomic research centre of India, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), was established at Trombay. Under his expert guidance, the first atomic reactor of India—Apsara—was established. Dr. Bhabha became the first Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission which was set up in 1948. He also became the Chairman of International Conference on peaceful uses of atomic energy. The conference was supported by the United Nations. He was a recipient of Padma Bhushan by Government of India. He died in a plane crash in 1966. Homi Bhabha Prize is given for the special contribution in ‘Theoretical Physics’
Under the expert guidance of Dr. Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai, India launched its first satellite Aryabhatta. Sarabhai studied cosmic rays under the guidance of Dr. C.V. Raman. He received his doctorate from Cambridge University. He established industries such as Sarabhai Chemicals, Sarabhai Glass, Sarabhai Geigy Ltd., Sarabhai Merck Ltd. and many others. His efforts saved crores of Indian rupees by initiating the mission of manufacturing military hardware and also producing antibiotics and penicillin in India.
The credit for establishing various reputed institutes in India goes to Dr. Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai. One such prominent example is Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs).
Dr. Sarabhai also served as the Chairman of the Indian National Commission for Space Research (INCOS PAR) and the Atomic Energy commission. He was the director during the establishment of the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS). He also initiated many plans to take education to the villages through Satellite communication. He was awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1966 and the Padma Vibhushan posthumously.
Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was born on 15 October 1931, in the island town of Rameshwaram in Tamil Nadu. He was the eleventh President of India. He was honoured with the highest civilian award of India, Bharat Ratna in 1997 for his contributions in the field of science and engineering. Dr. Kalam had served in Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) from 1963 to 1982. At Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Dr. Kalam developed the Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV 3), which was used to put the satellite Rohini into orbit. As the Director of Defence Research Development Organisation (DRDO), he was given the responsibility of Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP). Later, he developed five projects for defence services which are Prithvi, Trishul, Akash, Nag and Agni. He was instrumental in leading India into an era of self-dependence.
Dr. Kalams life symbolizes the true spirit of India. He integrated science with religion and philosophy. Dr. Kalam said, ‘I have no belongings in the worldly sense. I have acquired nothing, built nothing; possess nothing, no family’.
In his life, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam has written many books:Developments in Fluid Mechanics and Space Technology (1988), India 2020: A vision for the New Millennium (1998), Envisioning an Empowered Nation, You Are Born To Blossom, Target 3 Billion (2011), A Manifesto for Change: A Sequel to India (2020), Reignited: Scientific Pathways to a Brighter Future (2015), Transcendence My Spiritual Experiences with Pramukh Swamiji (2015), My Journey: Transforming Dreams into Actions (2013), Indomitable Spirit, Ignited Minds: Unleashing the Power Within India (2002), The Luminous Sparks (2004), Mission India (2005), Inspiring Thoughts (2007), Forget your Future: Candid, Forthright, Inspiring (2014), Turning Points: A journey through challenges (2012).
Amal Kuma Born in Barisal in East Bengal in 1923, he was a leading Indian physicist receiving his doctorate degree in 1959 for his research on general relativity and cosmology. His great ‘Raychaudhuri equation’was the most significant contribution in which he demonstrates that singularities arise inevitably in general relativity and is a key ingredient in the proofs of the Penrose-Hawking singularity theorem.
He Born in 1943, he was a mechanical engineer and an Indian nuclear scientist. He was the Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission of India and the Secretary to the Government of India, Director of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay during 1996–2000. For his contribution he was awarded with the Padma Vibhushan in 2009. He also played a significant role in India’s nuclear tests. Asserting sovereignty, Kakodkar champions India’s self-reliance on thorium Advanced Heavy Water Reactor, which uses thorium–uranium 233 as the primary energy source with plutonium as the driver fuel. The unique reactor system, with simplified but safe technology, would generate 75% of electricity from thorium. He joined the Reactor Engineering Division of the BARC and played a significant role in design and construction of the Dhruva reactor which is a completely original and also a high-tech project. Kakodkar has also been a part of the core team of architects of India’s peaceful nuclear tests in 1974 and also in 1998 as well. Further he has also led the indigenous development of India’s pressurised heavy water reactor technology. He worked in the rehabilitation of the two reactors at Kalpakkam and in the first unit at Rawatbhata.
Born in 1950 and Faculty Senior Scientist in India and Director of the Energy and Environmental Technologies Division at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Dr. Gadgil specializes in heat transfer, fluid dynamics and technology design for development. His best-known technologies are ‘UV Waterworks’(a water disinfection system), and the Berkeley–Darfur Stove which is an inexpensive stove that saves fuelwood in internally displaced person’s camps in Darfur. In early 1990s, he had analysed the potential for large utility-sponsored projects with a view to promote energy efficient electric lighting in poor households in developing countries.
Chintamani Nagesa Ramachandra Rao was born in Bangalore in 1934. Dr. Rao is an Indian chemist who has worked largely in solid-state and structural chemistry. The relationship between material properties and the structural chemistry of materials can be easily understood through his work on transition metal oxides. Dr. Rao has also synthesised two-dimensional oxide materials such as La2CuO4. His work has led to a systematic study of compositionally controlled metal–insulator transitions. Such studies have had a profound impact in application fields such as colossal magneto resistance and high temperature superconductivity. Dr. Rao is currently serving as the Head of the Scientific Advisory Council to the Prime Minister of India. On 4 February 2014 he was awarded with the Bharat Ratna.
He was born in September 1931 in Kerala. He is theoretical physicist of India and a professor in the University of Texas. Sudarshan is doing many significant work in the field of theoretical Physics such as Optical coherence, Sudarshan–Glauber representation, V–A theory, Tachyons, Quantum Zeno effect, Open quantum system, non-invariance groups, spin–statistics theorem, positive maps of density matrices, quantum computation, etc. His most important contribution is in the field of quantum optics. His theorem has proven ‘the equivalence of classical wave optics to quantum optics’. He is also the first person who proposed the existence of tachyons, particles that travels faster than light. He developed dynamical maps, which are used for studying the theory of open quantum system. He also proposed the quantum Zeno effect in the teamwork with Baidyanath Mishra. In 1975 ,he received the Padma Bhushan Award.
He was born in Kerala on October 1922. He is best known for the work ‘Ramachandran Plot’which the scientists had conceived along with Vishwanathan Sasisekharan to understand the structure of peptides. The triple-helical model of collagen structure was first suggested by him and he also has made significant contribution in the field of biology. Ramachandran and Lakshmi narayan suggested the algorithms which proved successful in more numerically correct images.
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EMINENT SCIENTISTS AND SCHOLARS OF INDIA- part 2 ,EMINENT SCIENTISTS AND SCHOLARS OF INDIA- Part 3 , Development of Science and Technology in Modern India ,
Development of Science and Technology in Medieval India , Development of Science and technology and Ancient India ,
Kalpathi Ramakrishna Ramanathan was born on 28 February 1893. He was an Indian physicist and also a meteorologist. He was the first Director of Physical Research Laboratory in Ahmedabad. He was awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1965 and the Padma Vibhushan later in 1976. He worked as a demonstrator at the Maharajah’s College of Science in Thiruvananthapuram, which was the beginning of his academic career. Dr. Ramanathan also served as the Director of Observatory in Thiruvananthapuram. The Kalpathi Ramakrishna Ramanathan Medal was constituted by the Indian National Science Academy in 1987 in his honour.
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