A vitamin is an organic compound and an essential nutrient that an organism requires in limited amounts. An organic chemical compound is called a vitamin when the organism cannot make the compound in sufficient quantities, and it must be obtained through the diet; thus, the term vitamin is conditional upon the circumstances and the particular organism. For example, vitamin C is a vitamin for humans, but not most other animals which make enough internally. vitamin D is essential only for people who do not have adequate skin exposure to sunlight, because the ultraviolet light in sunlight normally promotes synthesis of vitamin D. While vitamin supplements are important for the treatment of certain health problems, otherwise healthy people generally receive no benefit from using vitamin supplements


Gulcagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas. It works to raise the concentration of glucose and fat in the bloodstream, and is considered to be the main catabolic hormone of the body. It is also used as a medication to treat a number of health conditions. Its effect is opposite to that of insulin, which lowers the extracellular glucose.

The pancreas releases Gulcagon when the concentration of glucose in the bloodstream falls too low. Glucagon causes the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose, which is released into the bloodstream. High blood-glucose levels, on the other hand, stimulate the release of insulin. Insulin allows glucose to be taken up and used by insulin-dependent tissues. Thus, glucagon and insulin are part of a feedback system that keeps blood glucose levels stable. Glucagon increases energy expenditure and is elevated under conditions of stress. Gulcagon belongs to the secretin family of hormones


Insulin also affects the synthesis of proteins in a wide variety of tissues. It is therefore an anabolic hormone, promoting the conversion of small molecules in the blood into large molecules inside the cells


Somatostatin, also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or by several other names, is a peptide hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation via interaction with G protein-coupled Somatostatin receptors and inhibition of the release of numerous secondary hormones.Somatostatin inhibits insulin and glucagon secretion.

Important Questions of Hormones and Glands are Listed Bellow (Part #3)

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1. Which gland produces vitamin ‘D’ in our body?


=>Parathyroid gland

2. How many glands are there in neck region ?
=>2 glands

3. What is the color of Thymus gland ?
=>Pinkish Gray

4. What is the weight of adult Thymus gland ?
=>35 gram

5. What is the weight of child (1-10 yrs) Thymus gland ?
=>10 to 13 gram

6. Which gland is located in upper side of each kidney ?
=>Adernal gland

7. What is the length of Adernal glad ?
=>4 cm

8. What is the weight of Adernal gland ?
=>12 gram

9. How many types of hormones Secrete the Adernal gland ?
=>5 types

10. Which hormones produce energy in any emergency case ?
=>Adrenalin hormones

11. What is the length of Pancreas ?
=>12 to 15 cm

12. Which gland is situated behind the Stomach ?


13. How many types of hormones are secreted by Pancreas ?
=>3 types

13. Which three hormones are secreted by Pancreas , name them ?
=>Gulcagon , Insulin and Somatostatin

14. Which gland is known as sex gland ?

15. How many types of Gonads are there , name them .
=>2 types ( Ovaries and Testes )

16. What is the Width of Ovaries ?
=>2.5 to 3.4 cm

17. What is the thickness of Ovaries ?
=>1 cm

18. How many types of hormones are secerted by Ovaries ?
=>2 types (Oestrogen and Progesterone )

19. Which hormones are responsible for mensuration ?
=>Oestrogen and Progesterone

20. Who was the founder of vitamin ?
=>Casimir Funk (1912)

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