**Correct Answer: fluid**

**Explanation:** A substance that can flow and take the shape of its container is known as a fluid. Liquids and gases are both considered fluids as they can deform continuously under the action of shear stress, unlike solids which generally have a defined shape and resist deformation.

**Correct Answer: all of the above**

**Explanation:** Practical fluids, including both liquids and gases, typically possess viscosity, surface tension, and compressibility. Viscosity refers to the resistance of a fluid to flow, surface tension is the force acting on the surface of a liquid that causes it to minimize its surface area, and compressibility is the ability of a fluid to decrease in volume under pressure.

**Correct Answer: is frictionless and incompressible**

**Explanation:** An ideal fluid is a theoretical concept used in fluid dynamics. It is considered to be frictionless and incompressible, meaning it has no internal friction and does not change in volume under external pressure. While it serves as a useful theoretical model, real-world fluids do not perfectly exhibit these characteristics.

**Correct Answer: have no shape**

**Explanation:** Liquids or fluids do not have their own shape and take the shape of the container they are placed in. This is one of the fundamental characteristics that distinguishes fluids from solids, which have a definite shape and volume.

**Correct Answer: do not occupy definite shape**

**Explanation:** Liquids do not have a definite shape and take the shape of the container they are in. They can be compressed, although the degree of compressibility varies depending on the specific properties of the liquid. Liquids are also affected by changes in pressure and temperature, so option (c) is not accurate.

**Correct Answer: compressibility**

**Explanation:** The variation in the volume of a liquid when subjected to changes in pressure is known as compressibility. This property refers to how easily the volume of a substance can be reduced when pressure is applied to it. Liquids generally have low compressibility compared to gases.

**Correct Answer: p = mass/volume**

**Explanation:** Mass density (ρ) is defined as the mass of a substance per unit volume. It is calculated by dividing the mass of the substance by its volume. The formula for mass density is ρ = mass / volume.

**Correct Answer: viscosity**

**Explanation:** Poise is a unit used to measure dynamic viscosity. It is named after the French physician Jean Léonard Marie Poiseuille. The unit measures the internal friction or resistance to flow within a fluid, often a liquid. It is commonly used in the field of fluid dynamics and rheology.

**Correct Answer: kinematic viscosity**

**Explanation:** Stoke is a unit used to measure kinematic viscosity, which is the ratio of dynamic viscosity to density. It is named after the British physicist and mathematician Sir George Gabriel Stokes. The unit is commonly used in the context of fluid dynamics and the study of flow patterns in liquids and gases.

**Correct Answer: 0.1**

**Explanation:** To convert one poise (unit of dynamic viscosity) into the MKS (Meter-Kilogram-Second) unit of dynamic viscosity, the multiplying factor is 0.1. This means that one poise is equivalent to 0.1 pascal-second (Pa·s), which is the MKS unit for dynamic viscosity.

**Correct Answer: does not vary on any other planet except earth**

**Explanation:** The specific weight of a liquid, defined as the weight per unit volume of the liquid, does not vary on any other planet except Earth. This is because specific weight is dependent on gravitational acceleration, which varies from one celestial body to another.

**Correct Answer: all of the above**

**Explanation:** The specific weight of water is 1000 kg/m^3 under standard conditions, which include normal atmospheric pressure of 760 mm of mercury, a temperature of 4°C, and measurement at mean sea level. All these conditions are typically considered when specifying the specific weight of water.

**Correct Answer: all of the above**

**Explanation:** The specific weight of sea water is higher than that of pure water primarily due to the presence of dissolved salts, as well as dissolved air and suspended matter. These additional components contribute to the overall weight per unit volume of sea water, making it denser than pure water.

**Correct Answer: specific gravity**

**Explanation:** The specific gravity of a substance is defined as the ratio of its density to the density of a standard substance, typically water. In this case, the specific gravity would be 0.75, indicating that the liquid is lighter than water.

**Correct Answer: Newtonian fluids**

**Explanation:** Water is considered a Newtonian fluid because its viscosity remains constant regardless of the applied shear stress. In other words, the rate of deformation is directly proportional to the shear stress for Newtonian fluids, and water exhibits this behavior under normal conditions.

**Correct Answer: Newton’s law of viscosity**

**Explanation:** Hooke’s law, which describes the behavior of an elastic material, is analogous to Newton’s law of viscosity for fluids. Hooke’s law states that the strain in a solid material is directly proportional to the stress applied to it within the elastic limit, while Newton’s law of viscosity similarly relates shear stress to the rate of deformation in fluids.

**Correct Answer: inversely proportional**

**Explanation:** The viscosity of liquids typically decreases as the temperature increases. This relationship between viscosity and temperature is inverse, meaning that as the temperature rises, the viscosity of the liquid decreases. Conversely, as the temperature decreases, the viscosity tends to increase.

**Correct Answer: directly proportional**

**Explanation:** Unlike liquids, the viscosity of gases is directly proportional to temperature. As the temperature of a gas increases, its viscosity also increases, and vice versa. This relationship is an important consideration in the study of fluid dynamics and the behavior of gases.

**Correct Answer: per unit length**

**Explanation:** Surface tension is the force acting on the surface of a liquid that causes it to minimize its surface area and behave like an elastic membrane. It is commonly measured as the force per unit length. Surface tension is responsible for the formation of droplets and the unique behavior of liquids at the surface.

**Correct Answer: surface tension**

**Explanation:** When drops of water fall, they tend to form spherical shapes due to the cohesive forces between water molecules and the surface tension of the liquid. Surface tension acts like a thin, elastic skin on the surface of the water, minimizing the surface area and causing the drops to assume a spherical shape.

**Correct Answer: curved upwards**

**Explanation:** In an open tube, the free surface of a liquid, such as mercury, curves upwards due to the phenomenon of surface tension. The surface tension of the liquid causes it to adhere to the walls of the tube, leading to a curved meniscus. This is commonly observed in open tubes filled with liquids like mercury or water.

**Correct Answer: upper face**

**Explanation:** When using a level pipe for leveling, the level is indicated by the upper face of the liquid in the pipe. The upper surface of the liquid in the pipe serves as a reference point for determining the level of the ground or other surfaces being measured. This method is commonly employed in surveying and construction work.

**Correct Answer: 4σ/d**

**Explanation:** The pressure difference between the inside and outside of a droplet of water is given by 4σ/d, where σ represents the surface tension of the liquid and d is the diameter of the droplet. This relationship explains the pressure differential that contributes to various phenomena, such as capillary rise or fall, observed in small-diameter tubes or droplets.

**Correct Answer: capillary rise**

**Explanation:** The phenomenon of the rising of a liquid surface in a tube of small diameter relative to the adjacent normal level of the liquid is known as capillary rise. This effect occurs due to the combined forces of adhesion, cohesion, and surface tension. Capillary rise is commonly observed in thin tubes or pores, where the liquid defies gravity and ascends higher than the normal surface level.

**Correct Answer: surface tension**

**Explanation:** Capillary rise is directly proportional to the surface tension of the liquid. Surface tension plays a critical role in determining the height to which the liquid can rise in a small-diameter tube or capillary. The stronger the surface tension, the greater the capillary rise observed in the tube.

**Correct Answer: all of the above**

**Explanation:** Capillarity of water is influenced by various factors, including surface tension, the angle of contact, and the diameter of the pipe. These parameters collectively impact the extent of capillary action exhibited by water in thin tubes or capillaries. Capillarity is directly related to surface tension and inversely related to both the angle of contact and the diameter of the tube.

**Correct Answer: h = 4σ cos θ / ρgd**

**Explanation:** The capillary rise or fall of a liquid is determined by the equation h = 4σ cos θ / ρgd, where h represents the height of the rise or fall, σ is the surface tension, θ is the angle of contact, ρ is the density of the liquid, g is the acceleration due to gravity, and d is the diameter of the tube. This formula allows for the calculation of the extent of capillary action observed in various situations.

**Correct Answer: 0.393 cm rise**

**Explanation:** Using the given data and the formula for capillary rise or fall, the calculated value is 0.393 cm, indicating the capillary rise in the glass tube when immersed in mercury. This demonstrates the extent to which the surface tension and other factors contribute to the phenomenon of capillarity in various liquids.

**Correct Answer: inversely proportional to the diameter of the glass tube**

**Explanation:** The rise or fall of a liquid in a glass tube of a small diameter when dipped is inversely proportional to the diameter of the glass tube. This suggests that the smaller the diameter of the tube, the greater the capillary action observed, leading to a more significant rise or fall of the liquid. The extent of the capillary action is influenced by the size of the tube.

**Correct Answer: in a fluid at rest**

**Explanation:** Pascal’s law states that pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is transmitted equally in all directions. This principle applies to fluids in equilibrium, implying that the pressure at any point within the fluid is the same in all directions. Pascal’s law is fundamental in understanding the behavior of fluids in various contexts, such as hydraulic systems and fluid mechanics.

**Correct Answer: 0, 50 kg/m^2**

**Explanation:** The pressure at a depth of 5 cm is zero, as there is no water above this point. At a depth of 15 cm, the pressure exerted is 50 kg/m^2. These values are obtained by considering the density of water and the gravitational acceleration, as per the principles of hydrostatics.

**Correct Answer: Pascal**

**Explanation:** The concept that a liquid transmits pressure equally in all directions when pressure is applied to its surface is attributed to Pascal’s law. This fundamental principle in fluid mechanics helps explain the behavior of fluids under various conditions and is instrumental in the design and operation of hydraulic systems.

**Correct Answer: mass**

**Explanation:** The continuity equation is primarily concerned with the law of conservation of mass in fluid mechanics. It relates to the principle that mass cannot be created or destroyed in a fluid flow system, emphasizing the balance between the mass inflow and outflow at any point in the system.

**Correct Answer: all of the above**

**Explanation:** The equation of continuity of fluids is applicable when the flow is steady, incompressible, and one-dimensional. These conditions are necessary for the equation to accurately describe the conservation of mass in a fluid flow system and to ensure the validity of the fluid dynamics principles involved.

**Correct Answer: relates the momentum per unit volume between two points on a stream line**

**Explanation:** The continuity equation in fluid dynamics is concerned with the relationship between the momentum per unit volume between two points on a streamline. It helps describe the behavior of fluids in terms of their mass and momentum flow rates and serves as a fundamental tool in analyzing and understanding fluid dynamics principles.

**Correct Answer: continuity equation**

**Explanation:** An ideal flow of a liquid adheres to the continuity equation, which describes the conservation of mass in the flow system. The continuity equation is essential in understanding the behavior of fluids and plays a significant role in the study of fluid dynamics and related phenomena.

**Correct Answer: barometers**

**Explanation:** Atmospheric pressure is commonly measured using barometers, which are instruments designed specifically for this purpose. Barometers help determine the pressure exerted by the Earth’s atmosphere, providing valuable information for weather forecasting and other atmospheric studies.

**Correct Answer: all of the above**

**Explanation:** The pressure less than atmospheric pressure can be referred to as suction pressure, vacuum pressure, or negative pressure, depending on the context and the specific application. These terms are used interchangeably to describe pressure conditions below the atmospheric pressure level.

**Correct Answer: altitude**

**Explanation:** The atmospheric pressure experiences variations primarily with changes in altitude. As the altitude increases, the atmospheric pressure decreases, leading to changes in atmospheric conditions and weather patterns. Understanding these variations is essential for various fields, including meteorology and aviation.

**Correct Answer: absolute – atmosphere**

**Explanation:** Gauge pressure refers to the pressure measured relative to the atmospheric pressure, usually denoted as the difference between the absolute pressure and the atmospheric pressure. This type of pressure measurement is commonly used in various applications, including the calibration of pressure gauges and instruments.

**Correct Answer: atmospheric pressure**

**Explanation:** Barometers are primarily used to measure atmospheric pressure. These instruments are designed to provide a direct indication of the pressure exerted by the Earth’s atmosphere at a specific location. Barometric pressure measurements are important for weather forecasting and related atmospheric studies.

**Correct Answer: pressure in water channels, pipes, etc.**

**Explanation:** Manometers are typically used to measure pressure in various fluid systems, such as water channels, pipes, or industrial equipment. They are valuable tools for determining the pressure within a closed system or fluid-carrying components.

**Correct Answer: difference in pressure at two points**

**Explanation:** Differential manometers are specialized pressure measurement instruments used to determine the difference in pressure between two points within a system. They are particularly useful in applications where pressure variations between specific locations need to be assessed.

**Correct Answer: very low pressure**

**Explanation:** Piezometers are instruments designed for measuring very low pressures, such as those found in geotechnical engineering or soil mechanics. They are used to monitor and assess pore water pressures in soil or rock formations, making them valuable tools in the field of civil and geotechnical engineering.

**Correct Answer: more than atmospheric pressure**

**Explanation:** In the context of fluid flow within pipes, the pressure is typically greater than atmospheric pressure. This increased pressure is a result of the energy imparted to the fluid to maintain its flow through the pipe network. It is essential for conveying fluids through pipelines, whether for water supply, gas distribution, or other industrial applications.

**Correct Answer: micro manometer**

**Explanation:** Micro manometers are specialized instruments designed to accurately measure low pressures with a high degree of precision. They are used in various applications where precise measurement of low-pressure differentials is crucial, such as in laboratories and scientific research.

**Correct Answer: (radius)^4**

**Explanation:** The total pressure exerted on the top of a closed cylindrical vessel filled with liquid is directly proportional to the fourth power of the radius. This relationship is derived from hydrostatic principles and is significant in various engineering and fluid mechanics applications.

**Correct Answer: adhesion**

**Explanation:** Molecules of fluids are attracted to other surfaces or materials due to a phenomenon known as adhesion. Adhesion occurs when the molecules of a fluid adhere to the molecules of a solid surface, creating intermolecular forces at the interface between the fluid and the solid. This plays a crucial role in capillary action and surface tension phenomena.

**Correct Answer: cohesion**

**Explanation:** Cohesion refers to the attraction among particles of the same material. It is the force that holds particles of the same substance together and creates the property of surface tension in liquids. Cohesion is essential in understanding the behavior of fluids and their interactions.

**Correct Answer: 0.1 kg/cm^2**

**Explanation:** The concept of “1 m head” refers to the pressure exerted by a column of fluid that is 1 meter in height. This pressure is equivalent to 0.1 kg/cm^2, and it is a fundamental unit used in fluid mechanics and hydrostatics to measure pressure based on the height of a fluid column.

_{g}= Specific gravity of Mercury, S

_{0}= Specific gravity of oil.)

_{g}/S

_{0})]

_{g}-S

_{0}]

_{0}– S

_{g}]

_{g}/S

_{0})-1]

**Correct Answer: h = x[(S _{g}/S_{0})-1]**

**Explanation:** Not available.

_{2}/S

_{0})]

_{g}/S

_{0})-1]

_{0}-S

_{2}]

**Correct Answer: h = x[1-(S _{2}/S_{0})]**

**Explanation:** Not available.

**Correct Answer: 2 m of oil**

**Explanation:** The height of an oil column can be determined using the relationship between pressure, specific gravity, and fluid column height. In this case, the specific gravity of oil is 0.7, and the pressure is 0.14 kgf/cm^2, which corresponds to a height of 2 meters (200 cm) of oil.

**Correct Answer: 700 kg/cm^3**

**Explanation:** Specific gravity (SG) is defined as the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance (usually water). If the specific gravity of oil is 0.7, the density of the oil can be calculated as 700 kg/cm^3 since the density of water is approximately 1000 kg/cm^3.

**Correct Answer: 3.20m of oil**

**Explanation:** The pressure difference (head) in a mercury-oil differential manometer can be calculated using the height difference of the mercury levels and the specific gravity of the oil. In this case, with a 20 cm difference in mercury level and a specific gravity of oil equal to 0.8, the pressure head corresponds to 3.20 meters of oil.

**Correct Answer: 0.75**

**Explanation:** Specific gravity (SG) is defined as the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of water. If the volume of liquid weighing 3000 kg is 4 cubic meters, the density of the liquid is 750 kg/m^3. To find the specific gravity, divide the density of the liquid by the density of water (approximately 1000 kg/m^3). Therefore, SG = 750 kg/m^3 / 1000 kg/m^3 = 0.75.

**Correct Answer: stream line**

**Explanation:** A stream line is an imaginary line that is drawn such that the tangent at any point along the line indicates the direction of the velocity of a fluid particle at that point. Streamlines help visualize the flow pattern of a fluid and are commonly used in fluid dynamics and fluid mechanics.

**Correct Answer: the condition of flow do not change with time**

**Explanation:** In fluid dynamics, steady flow refers to a condition where the flow parameters, including velocity, pressure, and density, do not change with time at a specific point in a fluid. It is characterized by the constancy of flow conditions and is essential for the analysis of fluid systems.

**Correct Answer: the size and shape of the cross-section in a particular length remain constant**

**Explanation:** Uniform flow in a fluid system occurs when the size and shape of the cross-section remain constant along a particular length of a channel or pipe. This uniformity in cross-section results in constant flow parameters, such as velocity, making it a key concept in fluid dynamics.

**Correct Answer: steady**

**Explanation:** When the velocity, pressure, density, and other flow parameters at a specific point in a fluid do not change with respect to time, the flow is referred to as steady flow. Steady flow conditions signify that the fluid properties at that point remain constant over time.

**Correct Answer: unsteady**

**Explanation:** Unsteady flow, also known as transient flow, occurs when the velocity, pressure, density, or other flow properties at a specific point in a fluid change with respect to time. This type of flow is characterized by time-dependent variations in fluid properties.

**Correct Answer: uniform flow**

**Explanation:** Uniform flow occurs when the velocity of fluid particles remains constant with respect to the length of the flow direction. In this type of flow, the fluid maintains a constant velocity profile along its path.

**Correct Answer: none of the above**

**Explanation:** The description provided does not specify a particular type of flow, so there is no clear classification based on the information given.

**Correct Answer: incompressible flow**

**Explanation:** Incompressible flow is characterized by the constancy of fluid density from point to point within a flow region. The property of incompressibility assumes that the density of the fluid does not vary significantly under the prevailing flow conditions.

**Correct Answer: compressible flow**

**Explanation:** Compressible flow refers to the type of flow where the density of the fluid varies from point to point within a flow region. This variation in density implies that the fluid is compressible, and its density can change under the influence of pressure and temperature fluctuations.

**Correct Answer: turbulent flow**

**Explanation:** Turbulent flow is characterized by irregular fluctuations in the velocity of fluid particles, which occur from point to point in both magnitude and direction. Turbulent flow is distinct from laminar flow, and it is often associated with chaotic and unpredictable fluid motion.

**Correct Answer: turbulent flow**

**Explanation:** Turbulent flow is marked by the crossing of individual fluid particles’ paths, resulting in complex and erratic fluid motion. This type of flow is commonly observed in situations where the flow velocity exceeds a critical value, leading to the disruption of smooth fluid motion.

**Correct Answer: long pipe at constant rate**

**Explanation:** In the context of a steady uniform flow through a long pipe, the flow rate remains constant, implying that the flow velocity and fluid properties do not change along the length of the pipe. This type of flow is essential for efficient and stable fluid transportation.

**Correct Answer: stream line flow**

**Explanation:** Stream line flow refers to the type of flow where each liquid particle follows a distinct and well-defined path as it moves through the fluid medium. Stream lines help visualize the flow pattern and aid in understanding fluid behavior and characteristics.

**Correct Answer: sub-critical flow**

**Explanation:** In open channel flow, the Froude number is a dimensionless parameter that describes the flow regime based on the balance between inertial and gravitational forces. When the Froude number is less than 1.0, the flow is referred to as sub-critical, indicating that the flow is controlled primarily by gravity, and the flow depth is less significant than the wave speed.

**Correct Answer: critical flow**

**Explanation:** When the Froude number in open channel flow is precisely 1.0, the flow is referred to as critical flow. In this state, the flow characteristics change, and the transition from sub-critical to super-critical flow occurs, resulting in specific hydraulic behaviors and conditions.

**Correct Answer: shooting flow**

**Explanation:** When the Froude number in open channel flow exceeds 1.0, the flow is denoted as shooting flow. This condition signifies that the flow is super-critical, indicating that wave speed is significant and is influenced by inertial forces more than gravitational forces.

**Correct Answer: the fluid particles move in layers parallel to the boundary**

**Explanation:** Laminar flow refers to the type of flow where fluid particles move in layers parallel to the boundary or surface. This orderly motion occurs in a smooth and predictable manner, without significant intermixing between adjacent layers of fluid.

**Correct Answer: laminar**

**Explanation:** Laminar flow is characterized by the orderly movement of fluid particles in straight paths, where all the streamlines are parallel to the surface or boundary. This type of flow exhibits smooth and predictable fluid behavior.

**Correct Answer: turbulent flow**

**Explanation:** Turbulent flow is associated with higher fluid losses due to increased energy dissipation resulting from the chaotic and irregular motion of fluid particles. The turbulent nature of the flow leads to enhanced frictional losses and increased energy expenditure within the fluid system.

**Correct Answer: both of (a) and (b)**

**Explanation:** Laminar flow can be observed in various scenarios, including underground flow and flow past tiny bodies, where the fluid motion occurs in well-defined layers parallel to the boundary. These examples exhibit the smooth and regular motion characteristic of laminar flow.

**Correct Answer: turbulent**

**Explanation:** Turbulent flow is characterized by the irregular and chaotic movement of fluid particles, leading to a zig-zag motion within the fluid medium. This type of flow is known for its unpredictable behavior and increased fluid mixing and intermixing.

**Correct Answer: all of the above**

**Explanation:** In a flowing liquid, a fluid particle can possess different forms of energy, including potential energy, kinetic energy, and pressure energy. These energy forms are essential in understanding the dynamics and behavior of fluid particles within a fluid system.

**Correct Answer: all of the above**

**Explanation:** Bernoulli’s equation is based on several fundamental assumptions, including the non-viscous nature of the fluid, fluid homogeneity, and the flow occurring along the streamline. These assumptions help simplify the fluid dynamics analysis and aid in understanding fluid behavior in various applications.

**Correct Answer: all of the above**

**Explanation:** The main assumption of Bernoulli’s equation encompasses various factors, including the uniform velocity of liquid particles across any cross-section of a pipe, the absence of external forces except gravity, and the absence of energy loss in the liquid during flow. These assumptions are crucial for the application and derivation of Bernoulli’s equation in fluid dynamics and engineering.

_{1}/W + Z

_{1}+ V

_{1}^2/2g = p

_{2}/W + Z

_{2}+ V

_{2}^2/2g

**Correct Answer: P/W + Z + V^2/2g = constant**

**Explanation:** Not available.

**Correct Answer: energy**

**Explanation:** Bernoulli’s theorem is primarily concerned with the conservation of energy within a fluid flow system. It states that the total energy in a fluid flow system remains constant along a streamline, emphasizing the interplay between potential energy, kinetic energy, and pressure energy within the fluid.

**Correct Answer: potential head, kinetic head, and pressure head**

**Explanation:** The total head of a particle in motion involves the summation of various energy components, including potential head, kinetic head, and pressure head. These energy components collectively represent the total energy possessed by the fluid particle within a fluid flow system.

**Correct Answer: kinetic energy per unit weight**

**Explanation:** The term v^2/2g is recognized as the kinetic energy per unit weight, representing the energy possessed by the fluid particle due to its motion. This term is a crucial component of the total energy equation and contributes to the overall energy balance within the fluid system.

**Correct Answer: potential energy per unit weight**

**Explanation:** The term z represents the potential energy per unit weight, signifying the energy possessed by the fluid particle due to its elevation or height within the gravitational field. This term contributes to the total energy equation and helps evaluate the overall energy distribution within the fluid system.

**Correct Answer: pressure energy per unit weight**

**Explanation:** The term P/pg denotes the pressure energy per unit weight, representing the energy possessed by the fluid particle due to its pressure within the fluid system. This term contributes to the overall energy balance and aids in understanding the pressure distribution within the fluid flow.

**Correct Answer: elevation energy**

**Explanation:** The energy possessed by a fluid due to its pressure within the fluid system is referred to as elevation energy. This type of energy is crucial in understanding the pressure distribution and the overall energy dynamics within the fluid flow system.

**Correct Answer: all of the above**

**Explanation:** In a fluid flow, the liquid particles can possess various forms of energy, including potential energy, kinetic energy, and pressure energy. These energy forms contribute to the overall energy balance and aid in understanding the energy distribution and dynamics within the fluid system.

**Correct Answer: pressure energy**

**Explanation:** An independent mass of fluid does not possess pressure energy. While the fluid may possess other forms of energy, such as elevation energy and kinetic energy, the concept of pressure energy is not applicable to an independent mass of fluid.

**Correct Answer: piezometric line**

**Explanation:** The line that connects the points to which the liquid rises in vertical piezometer tubes at different cross-sections of a conduit is known as the piezometric line. This line provides essential information about the pressure distribution and the flow dynamics within the fluid system.

**Correct Answer: pressure head and datum head**

**Explanation:** The hydraulic gradient line (H.G.L.) represents the sum of the pressure head and datum head within a fluid flow system. This line serves as a crucial indicator of the pressure distribution and the energy dynamics along the length of the flow path.

**Correct Answer: pressure head, kinetic head, and datum head**

**Explanation:** The total energy line (T.E.L) represents the sum of the pressure head, kinetic head, and datum head within a fluid flow system. This line aids in understanding the overall energy distribution and dynamics, offering insights into the energy balance within the fluid system.

**Correct Answer: kinetic head**

**Explanation:** The difference between the total energy line and the hydraulic gradient line corresponds to the kinetic head, signifying the energy lost due to the fluid’s motion within the system. This loss of energy is a crucial factor in understanding the energy dynamics and losses within the fluid flow system.

**Correct Answer: P/w**

**Explanation:** Pressure head is represented by the term P/w, where P denotes pressure and w represents the specific weight of the fluid. This term serves as a vital component in the evaluation of the energy distribution and pressure dynamics within the fluid flow system.

**Correct Answer: loss of head**

**Explanation:** The difference between the total energy gradient line and the total energy line corresponds to the loss of head within the fluid flow system. This loss of energy is an essential factor in understanding the energy dynamics and losses occurring during the fluid flow process.

**Correct Answer: hydraulic gradient line**

**Explanation:** The imaginary line that connects each head of water within a fluid flow system is known as the hydraulic gradient line. This line aids in understanding the energy distribution and pressure dynamics along the flow path, providing crucial insights into the flow behavior and characteristics.

**Correct Answer: different**

**Explanation:** The hydraulic gradient line and total energy line are distinct and represent different aspects of the energy distribution and dynamics within a fluid flow system. While both lines offer valuable insights into the flow behavior, they correspond to different energy components and serve different analytical purposes.

**Correct Answer: same as water level**

**Explanation:** The hydraulic gradient line for an open flow channel remains at the same level as the water level within the channel. This line represents the energy distribution and dynamics within the open flow channel, providing valuable information about the pressure and energy balance along the flow path.

**Correct Answer: remains above the centerline of the conduit**

**Explanation:** The hydraulic gradient line, except in the case of a siphon, remains positioned above the centerline of the conduit. This line helps in understanding the pressure distribution and energy dynamics within the fluid flow system, providing insights into the overall flow behavior.

**Correct Answer: residual head**

**Explanation:** The head of water represented in the case of the hydraulic gradient line (HGL) is known as the residual head. This head corresponds to the remaining or leftover energy within the fluid flow system and aids in understanding the energy balance and flow characteristics.

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