**Correct Answer: back water curve**

**Explanation:** The profile of rising water on the upstream side of a dam is known as the “back water curve.” This curve describes the elevation of the water surface upstream of the dam and is a vital consideration in dam design and analysis.

**Correct Answer: obstruction due to weir in the channel**

**Explanation:** A back water curve is typically caused when there is an obstruction in the channel, such as a weir or dam. This obstruction leads to changes in the water surface profile upstream of the structure.

**Correct Answer: twice**

**Explanation:** The numerical value of vorticity in fluid dynamics is typically twice that of the rotational velocity. Vorticity is an important parameter in understanding fluid rotation and flow patterns.

**Correct Answer: the total energy suddenly decreases**

**Explanation:** Cavitation in flowing fluid occurs when the total energy of the fluid suddenly decreases. This can lead to the formation of vapor bubbles and other undesirable effects in hydraulic systems.

**Correct Answer: low pressure**

**Explanation:** Cavitation is primarily caused by low pressures in flowing fluids, leading to the formation of vapor bubbles or cavities. It can have detrimental effects on the hydraulic system and the surfaces exposed to cavitation.

**Correct Answer: high pressure**

**Explanation:** Cavitation is typically collapsed by high pressures in the fluid. Applying higher pressures helps eliminate the vapor bubbles or cavities formed during the cavitation process.

**Correct Answer: destroy the energy**

**Explanation:** A water cushion is often used to dissipate or destroy the excess energy in hydraulic systems. It helps regulate and stabilize the flow of water, preventing sudden pressure fluctuations and undesirable effects in the system.

**Correct Answer: WIS-MIE-RIV-FIG-EIP**

**Explanation:** The dimensionless number can be conveniently represented as WIS-MIE-RIV-FIG-EIP for easy recollection and identification. This representation helps in better understanding and application of various dimensionless parameters in fluid dynamics and engineering.

**Correct Answer: viscosity**

**Explanation:** Reynolds number is the ratio of the initial force, often inertia, to the viscosity of the fluid. It is a dimensionless quantity used to predict flow patterns in different fluid flow scenarios, indicating whether the flow is laminar or turbulent.

**Correct Answer: more than 3000**

**Explanation:** In pipe flow, the flow is considered turbulent if the Reynolds number exceeds 3000. This indicates that the flow is highly turbulent and characterized by chaotic and irregular fluid motion within the pipe.

**Correct Answer: Weber number**

**Explanation:** When a liquid flows from an open-ended tube (nozzle) and forms a spray of liquid drops, the relevant dimensionless number is the Weber number. The Weber number describes the balance between inertia and surface tension forces.

**Correct Answer: Froude number**

**Explanation:** The Froude number is the ratio of the inertia and gravitational forces in any flow, particularly when other forces can be ignored. It is used to classify the flow regime in open channels and flumes.

**Correct Answer: elasticity**

**Explanation:** The Mach number is the ratio of inertia force to elasticity (or compressibility) in fluid dynamics. It is commonly used in aerodynamics to determine the flow regime of gases, particularly in supersonic or subsonic flows.

**Correct Answer: surface tension**

**Explanation:** The Weber number is the ratio of inertia force to surface tension in fluid dynamics. It is used to assess the importance of surface tension in various flow situations, such as droplet formation.

**Correct Answer: Froude number**

**Explanation:** When inertia and gravitational forces are dominant in the flow, and frictional resistance is relatively minor, the design of channels is typically based on comparing the Froude number. This is especially relevant for open channel flow design.

**Correct Answer: inertia force to pressure force**

**Explanation:** Euler’s number is the ratio of inertia force to pressure force. It is used to characterize the compressibility effects in fluid dynamics, particularly in the context of aerodynamics.

**Correct Answer: Mach number**

**Explanation:** Among the given options, the Mach number is dimensionless. The Mach number characterizes the speed of an object (often an aircraft) relative to the speed of sound and is a dimensionless parameter used in fluid dynamics.

_{f}is head loss)

_{f}/75

_{f})/4500

_{f})/75

**Correct Answer: WxQx(H-h _{f})/75**

**Explanation:** The power transmitted through a pipe can be calculated using the formula WxQx(H-h_{f})/75, where W represents weight, Q is the flow rate, H is the total head, and h_{f} is the head loss.

**Correct Answer: 0.746 kW**

**Explanation:** One horsepower (HP) is approximately equal to 0.746 kilowatts (kW). This conversion factor is commonly used to relate power measurements in different units.

**Correct Answer: 500 HP**

**Explanation:** If the total head is 37.5 meters and the discharge is 1 cubic meter per second, the power generated can be calculated, and it is approximately 500 horsepower (HP).

**Correct Answer: crest**

**Explanation:** The upper surface of a weir over which water flows is known as the “crest” of the weir.

**Correct Answer: viscosity of flow**

**Explanation:** A surface float is used to measure the viscosity of flow in a fluid, particularly in industrial and laboratory applications.

**Correct Answer: more than external pressure**

**Explanation:** The pressure within a soap bubble is greater than the external pressure. This pressure differential is what keeps the bubble stable and maintains its shape.

**Correct Answer: 66%**

**Explanation:** The maximum efficiency of power transmission through a pipe is typically around 66%. This represents the highest level of power transfer efficiency achievable in hydraulic systems.

**Correct Answer: both (b) and (c) of the above**

**Explanation:** The hydrostatic pressure on a dam depends on both its depth and shape. The depth of the water reservoir behind the dam and the shape of the dam play a significant role in determining the pressure exerted on the dam structure.

**Correct Answer: is the same as in each pipe**

**Explanation:** When pipes are connected in parallel, the total loss of head in the system is the same as the loss of head in each individual pipe. This is a key principle in fluid flow analysis.

**Correct Answer: division of discharge to the area of flow**

**Explanation:** The velocity of flow can be determined by dividing the discharge by the area of flow. This relationship helps to establish the speed of fluid movement within a specific channel or conduit.

**Correct Answer: the angle of the notch and the depth of the flow**

**Explanation:** The discharge through a V-notch weir is directly proportional to the angle of the V-notch and the depth of the flow. This relationship governs the flow characteristics over the V-notch weir structure.

**Correct Answer: h = H**

**Explanation:** In the case of a broad-crested weir, the depth of water h at the end of the still is approximately equal to the total head H. This relationship is crucial in determining the behavior of flow over the weir.

^{3/2}

^{3/2}

^{5/2}

^{5/2}

**Correct Answer: directly proportional to H ^{3/2}**

**Explanation:** The discharge over a rectangular notch is directly proportional to the square root of the head (H) raised to the power of 3/2. This relationship helps in the calculation and analysis of fluid flow characteristics over the rectangular notch.

**Correct Answer: steady flow**

**Explanation:** Steady flow refers to a situation in fluid dynamics where the fluid or flow parameters remain constant at every point in space at any given instant. It implies that the flow does not change with time at any specific point.

**Correct Answer: submerged weir**

**Explanation:** A submerged weir is a type of weir where the water level on the downstream side is higher than the top surface of the weir. This can lead to unique flow characteristics and considerations in hydraulic engineering.

**Correct Answer: friction**

**Explanation:** In a long pipe, the basic head loss primarily occurs due to friction between the fluid and the pipe walls. This frictional head loss is a result of the viscosity of the fluid and the roughness of the pipe surface.

**Correct Answer: borda’s mouthpiece running full**

**Explanation:** Borda’s mouthpiece running full typically has the highest coefficient of discharge among the given options. The coefficient of discharge is a measure of the efficiency of a particular flow measurement device.

**Correct Answer: 20 kN**

**Explanation:** The hydrostatic force exerted by water is proportional to the depth and other parameters. In this case, with a 2 m deep water level, the force exerted on the gate downstream is equal to 20 kN.

**Correct Answer: pressure energy + kinetic energy + potential energy**

**Explanation:** The total energy of a liquid in motion includes the pressure energy, kinetic energy, and potential energy. These components collectively contribute to the energy of the fluid system.

**Correct Answer: steady flow**

**Explanation:** The property described in this question is that of steady flow. In steady flow, the fluid properties remain constant at any given point in space over time.

**Correct Answer: piezometers**

**Explanation:** Piezometers are used to measure very low pressures. They are commonly employed in geotechnical and hydraulic engineering applications.

**Correct Answer: nappe**

**Explanation:** The upper surface of the weir over which water flows is known as the “nappe” of the weir. It is the sheet of water that flows over the crest of the weir.

**Correct Answer: none of the above**

**Explanation:** The quantity of mass of a fluid is not affected by the acceleration due to gravity, the distance from the center of the earth, or the elevation of the body. These factors primarily influence the weight of the fluid.

**Correct Answer: clays**

**Explanation:** The magnitude of capillary rise is generally higher in clays compared to other types of soil such as silts, sands, or gravels. This is due to the finer particles and the higher capillary action in clay soils.

**Correct Answer: all of the above**

**Explanation:** The total pressure force on a plane area is equal to the product of the area and the intensity of pressure at its centroid for any orientation, whether the area is horizontal, vertical, or inclined.

**Correct Answer: drops with temperature**

**Explanation:** The viscosity of a liquid typically decreases with increasing temperature. This phenomenon is common in many liquids and is an essential consideration in various fluid dynamics applications.

**Correct Answer: viscosity describes the internal friction of a moving fluid**

**Explanation:** Viscosity describes the internal friction of a moving fluid. It is a measure of the resistance to deformation in a fluid due to internal frictional forces.

**Correct Answer: all of the above**

**Explanation:** Bernoulli’s equation is a fundamental principle in fluid dynamics that relates the velocity, pressure, and elevation in a fluid flow system. It can be applied to various flow measurement devices such as venturimeters, orifice meters, and pitot tubes.

^{1/2}

^{3/2}

^{5/2}

**Correct Answer: H ^{5/2}**

**Explanation:** The rate of flow through a V-notch varies as the fifth power of the depth (H). This relationship is critical in understanding the flow characteristics over V-notch weirs and similar flow control structures.

**Correct Answer: specific gravity**

**Explanation:** Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance. It is a dimensionless quantity often used in fluid mechanics and related fields.

**Correct Answer: discharge**

**Explanation:** Orifice meters are commonly used to measure the discharge of fluids. They work based on the principle of fluid flow through an orifice, providing valuable information about the flow rate of the fluid.

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